Since dogs can’t tell you about how they feel examining your dog routinely for any changes from normal, thereby identifying and addressing medical problems before pronounced symptoms appear, is the best way of assuring a long and healthy life.
There are many signs of a dog’s health in the dog’s body and excretion. Here’s a quick way of reading them:
- Checking the temperature: The normal temperature is between 100 and 102.5 degrees Fahrenheit (38.3 to 39.2 Celsius). If your dog is lethargic and has an elevated temperature, you need to contact your vet. To take an accurate reading have another person accompany you (especially if you are new to this). One person should hold the dog’s head while the other inserts a digital thermometer into the dog’s rectum. Lubricate the thermometer end with petroleum jelly. Wait for the ‘beep’ to tell you the reading is complete. Note down the temperature. Use surgical spirit or hand sanitizer on a cotton swab or toilet roll to wipe the thermometer before storing. Note that if your pet is stressed or excited, or has been in a hot car etc you may get a falsely elevated temperature.
- Checking the Mouth: Looking at the dogs’ mouth gives you a great idea about his overall well being. Pull back its lips to reveal the gums (if your dog has black gums, look at its tongue). They should be pale to medium pink. If the gums or tongue are blue, purple, white, brick-colored or extremely bright red it could mean something is impeding the flow of blood throughout your dog’s body. If they look pale – do a “capillary refill” test – press above a canine tooth with your thumb and release your thumb. The spot will be very pale as all the blood has left the area due to pressure. It should regain original color in 2 seconds. If it takes 3 seconds or longer or does not regain color, it could mean the dog is anemic and you need to check with a vet to address it immediately.
- Checking eyes: The eyes (cornea) of the dog should be clear. Any change in the brightness of the eyes is a telltale sign that the dog is not healthy. Lift/ push-up the eyelids with your fingers – the white of the eyes should clearly show blood vessels and should have a pinkish hue. If it is pale white, yellowish or sallow that is a sign the dog is anemic and has an underlying condition.
- Taking your dog’s pulse: A normal resting adult dog’s heart rate is around 70 – 80 per minute for a large dog and goes up to 120-140 beats per minute for small dogs. To check your dog’s heart rate place your hand on the left side of its chest, behind its elbow so you can feel the heartbeat. Count heartbeats you feel in 15 seconds and multiply that by 4 to get the beats per minute. If a dog’s heart rate is over 180 beats per minute that could require attention.
- Watching stools for consistency, or for vomiting and diarrhea: Stools should be a consistent formation and volume etc. If they change color or consistency something has changed in the dogs’ health and you need to watch out for it. Diarrhea and/or vomiting are signs of your dog’s body attempting to expel foreign poisonous substances. Examine your dog’s vomit/stool for content, color, and consistency. Your dog’s stool should be firm and brown. If your dog’s stool becomes watery, loose, yellow, green, or deep black, contact your vet.
- Watching your dogs’ breathing: The appropriate respiratory rate of a dog is 10-30 breaths per minute. Dog’s pant because they don’t sweat and that’s how they regulate body temperature. That’s also the reason their tolerance for temperature ranges is less than ours and makes them susceptible to heat stroke. Heavy panting lasting for longer than 30 minutes, without activity, could be a telltale sign of respiratory or cardiac issues especially if you hear wheezing or crackling as your dog breathes.
- Watching your dog’s balance: If your dog shows imbalance or is staggering or disoriented it is a sign of an illness including fever, neurological or heart problems, low blood sugar etc and needs immediate attention.
- Watching for a loss of appetite: If your dog stops reduces it’s food intake gradually or stops eating suddenly call your vet.
What to do next?
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- Disclaimer: VOSD’s recommendations are based on 250,000+ treatments that we have delivered to the dogs in our care. However please note that this recommendation while based on tremendous experience of the best vets in the country is not specific to your dog which is not in our possession. The advice on recommended drugs and dosages is to be used as the first line of treatment if a vet is not available. VOSD is not liable for any consequences on the treatment you deliver.